Chemistry 2

Practice Final Exam

 

  1. When white phosphorous P4 is exposed to O2, the white solid will burst into flame and release a large amount of heat. Which of the following is TRUE about the equilibrium constant, K, for the reaction?
  2. P4(s) + 5 O2(g) P4O10(s)

    (a) K << 1
    (b) K = 0
    (c) K = 1
    (d) K >> 1
    (e) more information is needed.

     

  3. If the reaction quotient, Q, is greater than Kc for a process, then the process is
  4. (a) at equilibrium.
    (b) to the right (product side) of the point of equilibrium.
    (c) to the left (reactant side) of the point of equilibrium.
    (d) can't tell from the available information.
    (e) either b or c.

     

  5. Calculate Kc for Reaction III below, using the following data.
  6. Reaction I: 2 NO2(g) 2 NO(g) + O2(g) Kc = 1.81 x 10-14

    Reaction II: 2 NO(g) N2(g) + O2(g) Kc = 9.71 x 1017

    Reaction III: 2 NO2(g) N2(g) + 2 O2(g) Kc = ?

    (a) Kc = 1.86 x 10-32
    (b) Kc = 5.69 x 10-5
    (c) Kc = 7.18 x 102
    (d) Kc = 1.76 x 104
    (e) Kc = 5.36 x 1031

     

  7. The equilibrium concentration of CH3OH at a given temperature is 0.20 M. What is the value of Kc for this reaction at this temperature? Initial concentrations are: [CO] = 2.0 M, [H2] = 0.50 M
  8. CO + 2 H2 CH3OH

    (a) Kc = 0.09
    (b) Kc = 0.90
    (c) Kc = 1.00
    (d) Kc = 1.11
    (e) Kc = 11.1

     

  9. Which manipulation(s) will shift the direction of equilibrium toward increased production of products? The reaction is exothermic (DHrxn < 0).
  10. CO2(g) + H2(g) CO(g) + H2O(g)

    (1) increasing the concentration of H2
    (2) decreasing the reaction temperature
    (3) increasing the reaction pressure
    (4) removing H2O from the system
    (5) increasing the concentrations of H2 and CO2

    (a) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
    (b) 1, 4, 5
    (c) 1, 3, 4, 5
    (d) 1, 2, 4, 5
    (e) 3 only

     

  11. At 700 C, Kc = 416 for the reaction:
  12. 2 SO2 + O2 2 SO3

    Calculate the value of Kc at 700 C for the reaction:

    2 SO3 2 SO2 + O2

    (a) Kc = 4.81 x 10-3
    (b) Kc = 2.40 x 10-3
    (c) Kc = 2.08 x 102
    (d) Kc = 4.16 x 102
    (e) Kc = 8.32 x 102

     

  13. Which of the following when dissolved in water will yield a slightly acidic solution?
  14. (a) NH3
    (b) NH4Cl
    (c) NaNO3
    (d) Na2CO3
    (e) Mg(NO3)2

     

  15. The pH of 0.1 M HNO3 is:
  16. (a) -0.1
    (b) -1
    (c) 0.1
    (d) 1
    (e) 2

     

  17. Which of the following is arranged in order of increasing acid strength (weakest acid first and strongest acid last)?
  18. (a) CH4 < H2O < NH3 < HCl
    (b) HCl < H2O < NH3 < CH4
    (c) HCl < NH3 < H2O < CH4
    (d) CH4 < NH3 < H2O < HCl
    (e) NH3 < CH4 < H2O < HCl

     

  19. What is the value of Ka for citric acid (the sour flavor of lemon) if 8.7% of the citric acid molecules in a 0.100 M solution dissociate ?
  20. (a) Ka = 8
    (b) Ka = 9 x 10-2
    (c) Ka = 9 x 10-3
    (d) Ka = 8 x 10-3
    (e) Ka = 8 x 10-4

     

  21. What is the pH of a 0.1 M solution of sodium acetate, NaOAc ?
    Ka of acetic acid, HOAc, is 1.8 x 10-5 ?
  22. (a) pH = 2.9
    (b) pH = 3.7
    (c) pH = 5.1
    (d) pH = 8.9
    (e) pH = 9.3

     

  23. Which of the following solutions is an acidic buffer?
  24. Acid

    pKa

    Ka

    HCO2H

    3.75

    1.8 x 10-4

    H2S

    7.00

    1.0 x 10-7

    H2PO4-

    7.20

    6.3 x 10-8

    HCN

    9.22

    6.0 x 10-10

    NH4+

    9.24

    5.6 x 10-10

     

    (a) 0.10 M H2S and 0.10 M NaHS
    (b) 0.10 M NH4Cl and 0.10 M NH3
    (c) 0.10 M HCN and 0.10 M NaCN
    (d) 0.10 M HCO2H and 0.10 M NaHCO2
    (e) 0.10 M NaH2PO4 and 0.10 M Na2HPO4

     

  25. How long will current flow if a Pb storage battery uses 500 g of Pb to delivers
    1.50 amps ?
  26. Pb(s) + SO42-(aq) PbSO4(s) + 2 e

    (a) 8.34 hours
    (b) 21.6 hours
    (c) 43.1 hours
    (d) 86.2 hours
    (e) 194 hours

     

  27. What is the sum of the coefficients of all REACTANTS when the unbalanced reaction below is balanced in an acidic solution ?
  28. S2O32-(aq) + MnO4-(aq) SO42-(aq) + Mn2+(aq)

    (a) 9
    (b) 13
    (c) 18
    (d) 25
    (e) 27

     

  29. Which statement(s) best describes what occurs when molten NaCl undergoes electrolysis?
  30. I. Cl2(g) is produced at the anode.
    II. Na metal is produced at the cathode.
    III. The reaction generates a current spontaneously.

    (a) I & II
    (b) I & III
    (c) II & III
    (d) I, II & III
    (e) III only

     

  31. What is the Erxn for the reaction below?
  32. 2 Fe(s) + O2(g) + 2 H2O(l) 2 Fe2+(aq) + 4 OH-(aq)

    (a) - 0.48 V
    (b) - 0.04 V
    (c) + 0.78 V
    (d) + 0.84 V
    (e) + 1.28 V

     

  33. Using the standard reduction potentials (on the last page) which statement is TRUE?
  34. (a) Cu(s) can reduce Ni2+(aq) to Ni(s).
    (b) H2(g) can reduce Ni2+(aq) to Ni(s).
    (c) H2(g) can reduce Na+(aq) to Na(s).
    (d) Hg(l) can reduce Au3+(aq) to Au(s).
    (e) Hg(l) can reduce Sn4+(aq) to Sn2+(aq).

     

  35. A clean iron nail is left outside in water. After a time, rust, Fe2O3 3 H2O, forms according to the overall reaction below. Which statement about this process is TRUE ?
  36. 4 Fe(s) + 3 O2(aq) + 6 H2O(l) 2 Fe2O3 3 H2O(s)

    (a) Fe is oxidized by the O2.
    (b) Fe is oxidized by the H2O.
    (c) O2 is oxidized by the Fe.
    (d) O2 is reduced by the H2O.
    (e) This is not an oxidation-reduction reaction.

     

  37. Which process has a POSITIVE S?
  38. I. 4 Al(s) + 3 O2(g) 2 Al2O3(s)

    II. C6H12O6(s) + 6 O2(g) 6 CO2(g) + 6 H2O(g)

    III. 8 H2S(g) + 4 O2(g) S8(s) + 8 H2O(l)

    (a) I & II
    (b) I & III
    (c) II & III
    (d) I, II, & III
    (e) II only

     

  39. What is S for the reaction below?
  40. P4O10(s) + 6 H2O(l) 4 H3PO4(aq)

    Compound

    Sac J/(Kmol)

    H2O(l)

    - 321

    H3PO4(aq)

    - 1374

    P4O10(s)

    - 2034

     

    (a) - 3141 J/(Kmol)
    (b) - 1536 J/(Kmol)
    (c) - 981 J/(Kmol)
    (d) + 981 J/(Kmol)
    (e) + 2586 J/(Kmol)

     

  41. The third law of thermodynamics defines zero on the entropy scale. Entropy is equal to zero for a perfectly ordered crystal when ...
  42. (a) T = 0 K
    (b) T = 25 C
    (c) P = 1 atm
    (d) Concentration = 1 M
    (e) T = 25 C, P = 1 atm, Concentration = 1 M

     

  43. From the Hac and Sac values, determine what is the driving force(s) behind the reaction below.
  44. Fe2O3(s) + 2 Al(s) Al2O3(s) + 2 Fe(s)

    Compound

    Hac kJ/mol

    Sac J/(Kmol)

    Al(s)

    - 326

    - 136

    Al2O3(s)

    - 3076

    - 761

    Fe(s)

    - 416

    - 153

    Fe2O3(s)

    - 2404

    - 757

     

    (a) Entropy
    (b) Enthalpy
    (c) Le Châtelier principle
    (d) Enthalpy and Entropy
    (e) Enthaply, Entropy, and Le Châtelier principle

     

  45. Determine the temperature at which CH3OH boils according to the reaction below. (Boiling point is the temperature at which this process reaches equilibrium at 1 atm of pressure.)
  46. CH3OH(l) CH3OH(g)
    H = + 38 kJ/mol
    S = + 113 J/(Kmol)

    (a) 0.34 K
    (b) 3.0 K
    (c) 150 K
    (d) 340 K
    (e) 3000 K

     

  47. What is Grxn for the dissociation of hydrofluoric acid in H2O at 298 K if
    Ka = 7.2 x 10-4 ?
  48. HF(aq) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + F-(aq)

    (a) + 6.3 kJ/mol
    (b) + 7.8 kJ/mol
    (c) + 18 kJ/mol
    (d) + 29 kJ/mol
    (e) + 177 kJ/mol

     

  49. The reaction show below is second-order in NO and first-order in H2.
  50. 2 NO(g) + 2 H2(g) N2(g) + 2 H2O(g)

    Rate = k [NO]2 [H2]1

    A possible mechanism for this reaction is given below. Assuming this mechanism is correct, which is the SLOW step ?

    step 1: 2 NO(g) N2O2(g)

    step 2: N2O2(g) + H2(g) N2O(g) + H2O(g)

    step 3: N2O(g) + H2(g) N2(g) + H2O(g)

    (a) step 1
    (b) step 2
    (c) step 3
    (d) all of the above
    (e) more information is needed.

     

  51. Use the data below to determine the rate law for the reaction between nitrogen oxide and chlorine to form nitrosyl chloride.
  52. 2NO(g) + Cl2(g) 2 NOCl(g)

    Initial [NO], M

    Initial [Cl2], M

    Initial Reaction Rate, M/s

    0.10

    0.10

    0.117

    0.20

    0.10

    0.468

    0.30

    0.10

    1.054

    0.30

    0.20

    2.107

     

    (a) Rate = k [NO]1/2 [Cl2]
    (b) Rate = k [NO] [Cl2]
    1/2
    (c) Rate = k [NO] [Cl2]
    (d) Rate = k [NO] [Cl2]2
    (e) Rate = k [NO]2 [Cl2]

     

  53. Use the results of the previous problem to determine the rate constant, k, for this reaction.
  54. (a) k = 11.7 s-1
    (b) k = 117 M-2 s-1
    (c) k = 3.70 M
    1/2 s-1
    (d) k = 0.272 M
    1/2 s-1
    (e) k = 8.55 x 10-3 M-2 s-1

     

  55. 14C decays to 12C with a first-order half life (t1/2) of 5730 years. What is the rate constant, k, for the reaction in year-1?
  56. (a) k = 1.0 x 105 year-1
    (b) k = 1.9 x 104 year-1
    (c) k = 4.0 x 103 year-1
    (d) k = 5.3 x 10-5 year-1
    (e) k = 1.2 x 10-4 year-1

     

  57. Charcoal samples from Stonehenge in England show 62.3% of the carbon-14 activity found in living tissue. How old are these charcoal samples?
    (Use the t
    1/2 or the calculated k from the previous problem for the 14C decay.)
  58. (a) 170 years old
    (b) 1700 years old
    (c) 3900 years old
    (d) 8100 years old
    (e) 17000 years old

     

  59. Assume that the activation energy was measured for both the forward (Ea = 185 kJ/molrxn) and reverse (Ea = 120 kJ/molrxn) directions of a reversible reaction. A catalyst decreases the activation energy for the forward reaction to
    90 kJ/molrxn. What would be the activation energy for the catalyzed REVERSE reaction ?

(a) Ea = 25 kJ/molrxn
(b) Ea = 30 kJ/molrxn
(c) Ea = 95 kJ/molrxn
(d) Ea = 155 kJ/molrxn
(e) Ea = 215 kJ/molrxn

 

 

 

IMPORTANT CONSTANTS :

Gas constant

R = 0.0821 Latm/(Kmol)

 

R = 8.314 J/(Kmol)

Faraday's constant

F = 96,500 C / 1 mol of e

 

1 C = 1 Asec

Temperature

K = C + 273

Water ionization

Kw = 1 x 10-14

 

STANDARD REDUCTION POTENTIALS Ered (V)

Na+(aq) + e Na(s)

- 2.71 V

Mg2+(aq) + 2 e Mg(s)

- 2.37 V

Zn2+(aq) + 2 e Zn(s)

- 0.76 V

Fe2+(aq) + 2 e Fe(s)

- 0.44 V

Ni2+(aq) + 2 e Ni(s)

- 0.25 V

2 H+(aq) + 2 e H2(g)

0.00 V

Sn4+(aq) + 2 e Sn2+(aq)

+ 0.13 V

Cu2+(aq) + 2 e Cu(s)

+ 0.34 V

O2(g) + 2 H2O(l) + 4 e 4 OH-(aq)

+ 0.40 V

I2(s) + 2 e 2 I-(aq)

+ 0.54 V

Hg2+(aq) + 2 e Hg(l)

+ 0.86 V

Br2(l) + 2 e 2 Br-(aq)

+ 1.07 V

Au3+(aq) + 3 e Au(s)

+ 1.50 V